Scott Brown


Position Associate Professor
Faculty / Division Faculty of Science and Information Technology
School of Psychology
Telephone +61 2 4921 5760
Facsimile +61 2 4921 6980
Location Aviation Building
Room AVLG11A
  Download Resume


In Press

Boehm, U., Hawkins, G.E., Brown, S.D., van Rijn, H., Wagenmakers, E.-J. (in press) Of monkeys and men: Impatience in perceptual decision-making. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review   pdf

Cassey, P., Hawkins, G.E., Donkin, C., & Brown, S.D. (in press) Using alien coins to test whether simple inference is Bayesian. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition.   pdf

de Hollander, G., Forstmann, B.U., Brown, S.D. (in press) Different ways of linking behavioral and neural data via computational cognitive models. Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging.

Ratcliff, R., Smith, P.L., Brown, S.D., & McKoon, G. (in press) Diffusion Decision Model: Current Issues and History. Trends in Cognitive Sciences

van Ravenzwaaij, D., Cassey, P., and Brown, S.D. (in press) A Simple Introduction to Markov Chain Monte-Carlo Sampling Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. (Special issue on Bayesian methods.)

Weigard, A.S., Huang-Pollock, C., & Brown, S.D. (in press) Evaluating the consequences of impaired monitoring of learned behavior in ADHD using a Bayesian hierarchical model of choice response time. Neuropsychology

Trueblood,J., Heathcote,A., & Brown,S.D. (2015) The Fragile Nature of Contextual Preference Reversals: Reply to Tsetsos, Chater, and Usher. Psychological Review

In Print


Boekel, W., Wagenmakers, E.-J., Belay, L., Verhagen, J., Brown, S.D., & Forstmann, B.U. (2015) A purely confirmatory replication study of structural brain-behavior correlations. Cortex, 66, 115-133   pdf   Supplementary Figures

Hawkins, G.E., Forstmann, B.U., Wagenmakers, E.-J., Ratcliff, R., & Brown, S.D. (2015) Revisiting the Evidence for Collapsing Boundaries and Urgency Signals in Perceptual Decision-Making. The Journal of Neuroscience, 35(6), 2476-2484.   pdf

Hawkins,G.E., Wagenmakers,E.J., Ratcliff,R., Brown, S.D (2015) Discriminating Evidence Accumulation From Urgency Signals In Speeded Decision Making. The Journal of Neurophysiology, 114(1), 40-7.

Jones, L.G., Hawkins, G.E., & Brown, S.D. (2015) Using best-worst scaling to improve psychological service delivery: An innovative tool for psychologists in organized care settings. Psychological Services, 12(1), 20   pdf

Terry, A., Marley, A.A.J., Barnwal, A., Wagenmakers, E.-J., Heathcote, A., & Brown, S.D. (2015) Generalising the drift rate distribution for linear ballistic accumulators Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 68-69, 4958   pdf


Cassey, P., Heathcote, A., & Brown, S. D. (2014) Brain and Behavior in Decision-Making. PLoS Computational Biology, 10(7), e1003700. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003700   pdf

Ester, E., Ho, T.C., Brown, S.D., & Serences, J.T. (2014) Variability in visual working memory ability limits the efficiency of perceptual decision making. Journal of Vision, 14(4), 1-12.   pdf

Hawkins, G. E., Marley, A. A. J., Heathcote, A., Flynn, T. N., Louviere, J. J., & Brown, S. D. (2014) Integrating cognitive process and descriptive models of attitudes and preferences. Cognitive Science, 38, 701-735   pdf   download the fitting code

Hawkins, G. E., Marley, A. A. J., Heathcote, A., Flynn, T. N., Louviere, J. J., & Brown, S. D. (2014) The best of times and the worst of times are interchangeable. Decision, 1(3), 192-214.   pdf

Heathcote, A., Brown, S.D. & Wagenmakers, E-J. (2014) The Falsifiability of Actual Decision-Making Models Psychological Review, 121, 676-678   pdf

Ho, T.C., Yang, G., Wu, J., Paulus, M.P., Cassey, P., Brown, S.D., Connolly, C.G., Hoang, N., Chan, M., Blom, E.H., Duncan, L.G., Chesney, M.A., Simmons, A.N., Yang, T.T. (2014) Functional connectivity of negative emotional processing in adolescent depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 155, 65-74   pdf

Rae, B., Heathcote, A., Donkin, C., Averell, L., & Brown, S. (2014) The hare and the tortoise: Emphasizing speed can change the evidence used to make decisions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 40, 1226-1243.   pdf

Trueblood, J., Brown, S.D., & Heathcote, A. (2014) The multi-attribute linear ballistic accumulator model of context effects in multi-alternative choice. Psychological Review, 112, 179-205


Turner, B., Forstmann, B., Wagenmakers, E.-J., Brown, S.D., Sederberg, S. & Steyvers, M. (2013) A Bayesian Framework for Simultaneously Modeling Neural and Behavioral Data. Neuroimage, 72, 193-206.   pdf

Friedman, J., Brown, S.D. & Finkbeiner, M. (2013) Linking cognitive and reaching trajectories via intermittent movement control. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 57, 140-151   pdf

Hawkins, G. E., Rae, B., Nesbitt, K. V., & Brown, S.D. (2013) Game-like features might not improve data. Behavior Research Methods, 45(2), 301-318   pdf

Matzke, D., Dolan, C.V., Logan, G.D., Brown, S.D., & Wagenmakers, E.-J. (2013) Bayesian parametric estimation of stop-signal reaction time distributions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(4), 1047-1073.

Matzke, D., Love, J., Wiecki, T.V., Brown, S.D., Logan, G.D., Wagenmakers, E.-J. (2013) Release the BEESTS: Bayesian Estimation of Ex-Gaussian STop-Signal Reaction Time Distributions Frontiers in Quantitative Psychology and Measurement, 4:918. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00918   pdf

Provost, A., Johnson, B., Karayanidis, F., Brown, S. & Heathcote, A. (2013) Two routes to expertise in mental rotation. Cognitive Science, 37 (7) 13211342.   pdf

Sinderberry, B., Brown, S.D., Hammond, P., Stevens, A.F., Schall, U., Murphy, D.G., Murphy, K.C. & Campbell, L. (2013) Subtypes in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome associated with behaviour and neurofacial morphology. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(1), 116-125.   pdf

Trueblood, J., Brown, S.D., Heathcote, A. & Busemeyer, J. (2013) Not just for consumers: Context effects are fundamental to decision-making. Psychological Science, 24(6), 901-908.   pdf

Turner, B., Sederberg, P., Brown, S.D., & Steyvers, M. (2013) A method for efficiently sampling from distributions with correlated dimensions. Psychological Methods, 18(3), 368-384   pdf   tutorial code


Brown, S.D. (2012) Common ground for behavioural and neuroimaging research. Australian Journal of Psychology, 64(1), 4-10.   pdf

Dodds, P., Rae, B., & Brown, S. D. (2012) Perhaps unidimensional is not unidimensional Cognitive Science, 36(8), 1542-1555.   pdf

Hawkins, G. E., Brown, S. D., Steyvers, M., & Wagenmakers, E.-J. (2012) An optimal adjustment procedure to minimize experiment time in decisions with multiple alternatives. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19, 339-348.   pdf

Hawkins, G., Brown, S. D., Steyvers, M., & Wagenmakers, E.-J. (2012) Context effects in multi-alternative decision making: Empirical data and a Bayesian model. Cognitive Science, 36, 498-516.   pdf   download the raw data files

Hawkins, G., Brown, S. D., Steyvers, M., & Wagenmakers, E.-J. (2012) Decision speed induces context effects in choice. Experimental Psychology, 59, 206-215   pdf

Ho, T.C., Brown, S.D., Abuyo, N.A., Kul, E.-H.J. & Serences, (2012) Perceptual consequences of feature-based attentional enhancement and suppression. Journal of Vision, 12(8), 15.

Ho, T.C., Brown, S.D., van Maanen L., Forstmann, B.U. Wagenmakers, E.-J. and Serences J.T. (2012) The optimality of sensory processing during the speed-accuracy tradeoff. Journal of Neuroscience, 32(23), 7992-8003.   pdf

Parris, B.A., Bate, S., Brown, S.D. & Hodgson, T.L. (2012) Facilitating goal-oriented behaviour in the Stroop task: When executive control is influenced by automatic processing. PLoS One, 7(10), e46994   pdf

Prince, M., Brown, S.D., & Heathcote, A. (2012) The design and analysis of state-trace experiments Psychological Methods, 17(1), 78-99.   pdf   Click here to download the data

van Maanen, L., Grasman, R.P.P.P., Forstmann, B.U., Keuken, M.C. Brown, S.D., & Wagenmakers, E.-J. (2012) Similarity and number of alternatives in the random-dot motion paradigm. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 74(4), 739-753   pdf

White, C.N., Brown, S.D., & Ratcliff, R. (2012) A test of Bayesian observer models of processing in the Eriksen flanker task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Performance and Perception, 38(2), 489-497   pdf


Dodds, P., Donkin, C., Brown, S. D. & Heathcote, A. (2011) Increasing Capacity: Practice Effects in Absolute Identification Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 37(2), 477-492.   pdf

Dodds, P., Donkin, C., Brown, S. D., Heathcote, A., Marley, A. A. J. (2011) Stimulus-Specific Learning: Disrupting the Bow Effect in Absolute Identification Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 73(6), 1977-1986.   pdf

Donkin, C., Brown, S., Heathcote, A., & Wagenmakers, E.J. (2011) Diffusion versus Linear Ballistic Accumulation: Different Models for Response Time, Same Conclusions about Psychological Mechanisms? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 55, 140-151.   pdf

Donkin, C., Brown, S.D. & Heathcote, A. (2011) Drawing conclusions from choice response time models: a tutorial. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 55(2), 140-151   pdf

Forstmann, B.U., Tittgemeyer, M., Wagenmakers, E.-J., Derrfuss, J., Imperati, D., & Brown, S.D. (2011) The speed-accuracy tradeoff in the elderly brain: A structural model-based approach. Journal of Neuroscience, 31(47), 17242-17249.   pdf

Forstmann, B.U., Wagenmakers, E.-J., Eichele, T., Brown, S.D., & Serences J.T. (2011) Reciprocal relations between cognitive neuroscience and cognitive models: Opposites attract? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15(6), 272-279.   pdf

Karayanidis, F., Provost, A., Brown, S.D., Paton, B., & Heathcote, A. (2011) Switch-specific and general preparation map onto different ERP components in a task-switching paradigm Psychophysiology, 48(4), 559-568.   pdf

Turner, B., Van Zandt, T., & Brown, S.D. (2011) A Dynamic Stimulus-Driven Model of Signal Detection Psychological Review, 118(4), 583-613.   pdf

van Maanen, L., Brown, S.D., Eichele, T., Wagenmakers, E.-J., Ho, T.C., Serences, J.T., & Forstmann, B.U. (2011) Neural correlates of trial-to-trial fluctuations in response caution. Journal of Neuroscience, 31(48), 17488-17495.   pdf

van Ravenzwaaij, D., Brown, S.D., & Wagenmakers, E.-J. (2011) An integrated perspective on the relation between response speed and intelligence. Cognition, 119, 381-393.   pdf


Dodds, P., Donkin, D., Brown, S.D., Heathcote, A. (2010) Multidimensional scaling methods for absolute identification data In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (Eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Portland, OR: Cognitive Science Society.   pdf

Donkin, C., Shiffrin, R., Brown, S., & Heathcote, A. (2010) Does micro-variability make models more complex? A comparison between diffusion and linear evidence accumulation Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Portland, OR: Cognitive Science Society.   pdf

Eidels, A., Donkin, C., Brown, S.D. & Heathcote, A. (2010) Converging measures of workload capacity Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 17, 763-771.   pdf

Forstmann, B.U., Brown, S.D., Dutilh, G., Neumann, J., & Wagenmakers, E.-J. (2010) The Neural Substrate of Prior Information in Perceptual Decision Making: A ModelBased Analysis Frontiers in Neuroscience, 4, Article 40.   pdf

Forstmann, B.U., Schfer, A., Anwander, A., Neumann, J., Brown, S.D., Wagenmakers, E.-J., Bogacz, R., Turner, R. (2010) Cortico-Striatal connections predict control over speed and accuracy in perceptual decision making Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 107, 15916-15920.   pdf   Supplementary Material

Hawkins, G., Prince, M., Brown, S., & Heathcote, A. (2010) Designing state-trace experiments to assess the number of latent psychological variables underlying binary choices. In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (Eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Portland, OR: Cognitive Science Society.   pdf

Heathcote, A., Brown, S.D., Wagenmakers, E-J. & Eidels, A. (2010) Distribution-free tests of stochastic dominance for small samples, 54, 454-463. Journal of Mathematical Psychology   pdf   Click here to download R code for the Three-choice Bayes Test


Brown, S.D., Wagenmakers, E.-J., & Steyvers, M. (2009) Observing evidence accumulation during multi-alternative decisions. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 53, 453-462.   pdf

Brown, S.D. & Steyvers, M. (2009) Detecting and predicting changes. Cognitive Psychology, 58, 49-67.   pdf

Brown, S.D., Marley, A.A.J., Dodds, P., & Heathcote, A.J. (2009) Purely relative models cannot provide a general account of absolute identification. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16, p.583-593   pdf

Dodds, P., Donkin, C., Brown, S. & Heathcote, A. (2009) Revising the limits of learning in Absolute Identification. In N. A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (Eds.),Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. ISBN 978-0-9768318-5-3   pdf

Donkin, C., Averell, L., Brown, S.D., & Heathcote, A. (2009) Getting more from accuracy and response time data: Methods for fitting the Linear Ballistic Accumulator model. Behavior Research Methods, 41, 1095-1110   pdf   Click here to download the code for fitting the LBA

Donkin, C., Brown, S.D, & Heathcote, A. (2009) The over-constraint of response time models: Rethinking the scaling problem. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16, 1129-1135   pdf

Donkin, C., Brown, S.D. & Heathcote, A. (2009) ChoiceKey: A real-time speech recognition program for psychology experiments with a small response set. Behavior Research Methods, 41, 154-162.   pdf   download the ChoiceKey software

Donkin, C., Brown, S.D., Heathcote, A. & Marley, A.A.J. (2009) Dissociating speed and accuracy in absolute identification: The effect of unequal stimulus spacing. Psychological Research, 73, 308-316.   pdf

Donkin, C., Heathcote, A., & Brown, S. (2009) Is the Linear Ballistic Accumulator Model Really the Simplest Model of Choice Response Times: A Bayesian Model Complexity Analysis. In A. Howes, D. Peebles, R. Cooper (Eds.), 9th International Conference on Cognitive Modeling - ICCM2009, Manchester, UK.   pdf

Donkin, C., Heathcote, A., Brown, S. & Andrews, S. (2009) Non-Decision Time Effects in the Lexical Decision Task. In N. A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (Eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. ISBN 978-0-9768318-5-3   pdf

Ho, T.C., Brown, S. & Serences, J.T. (2009) Domain General Mechanisms of Perceptual Decision Making in Human Cortex. The Journal of Neuroscience, 29(27), 86758687   pdf


Brown, S.D., & Heathcote, A. (2008) The simplest complete model of choice reaction time: Linear ballistic accumulation. Cognitive Psychology, 57, 153-178.   pdf   R-language software to implement the model

Brown, S.D., Marley, A.A.J., Donkin, C. & Heathcote, A. (2008) An integrated model of choices and response times in absolute identification. Psychological Review, 115(2), 396-425.   pdf   Click here to download the code for simulating SAMBA

Forstmann, B.U., Dutilh, G., Brown, S.D., Neumann, J., von Cramon, D.Y., Ridderinkhof, K.R., & Wagenmakers, E.J. (2008) Striatum and pre-SMA facilitate decision-making under time pressure. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 105, 17538-17542   pdf   supplementary material


Brown, S.D., Marley, A.A.J., & Lacouture, Y. (2007) Is absolute identification always relative? Psychological Review, 114(2), 528-532.   pdf   Appendix with simulation code

Brown, S.D., Steyvers, M. & Hemmer, P. (2007) Modeling experimentally induced strategy shifts. Psychological Science, 20(1), 40-46.   pdf

Wagenmakers, E.-J. & Brown, S.D. (2007) On the linear relationship between the mean and the standard deviation of a response time distribution. Psychological Review, 114(3), 830-841   pdf


Brown, S.D., Lehmann, C., & Poboka, D. (2006) A critical test of the failure-to-engage theory of task-switching. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13, 152-159   pdf

Brown, S.D., Ratcliff, R., & Smith, P.L. (2006) Evaluating methods for approximating stochastic differential equations. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 50, 402-410.   pdf


Brown, S.D. & Heathcote, A. (2005) A ballistic model of choice response time. Psychological Review, 112, 117-128.   pdf

Brown, S.D. & Heathcote, A. (2005) Practice increases the efficiency of evidence accumulation in perceptual choice. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 31, 289-298.   pdf

Brown, S.D. & Steyvers, M. (2005) The dynamics of experimentally induced criterion shifts. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 31, 587-599.   pdf

Chambers, R.A., Jones, R.M., Brown, S.D. & Taylor, J.R. (2005) Natural reward-related learning in rats with neonatal ventral hippocampal lesions and prior cocaine exposure. Psychopharmacology, 179, 470-478.   pdf

Steyvers, M. & Brown, S.D. (2005) Prediction and Change Detection. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, 18, 1281-1288.   pdf


Cousineau, D., Brown, S.D. & Heathcote, A. (2004) Fitting distributions using maximum likelihood: Methods and packages. Behaviour Research Methods, Instruments & Computers, 36, 742-756.   pdf

Heathcote, A., & Brown, S.D. (2004) Beyond curve fitting? Comment on Liu, Mayer-Kress and Newell. Journal of Motor Behavior, 36, 225-232.   pdf

Heathcote, A., & Brown, S.D. (2004) Reply to Speckman and Rouder: A theoretical basis for QML. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 11, 577.   pdf

Heathcote, A., Brown, S.D. & Cousineau, D. (2004) QMPE: Estimating Lognormal, Wald and Weibull RT distributions with a parameter dependent lower bound. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers, 36, 277-290.   pdf


Brown, S.D. & Heathcote, A. (2003) Averaging learning curves across and within participants. Behaviour Research Methods, Instruments & Computers, 35, 11-21   pdf

Brown, S.D. & Heathcote, A. (2003) Bias in exponential and power function fits due to noise: Comment on Myung, Kim and Pitt. Memory and Cognition, 31, 656-661.   pdf

Brown, S.D., & Heathcote, A. (2003) QMLE: Fast, robust and efficient estimation of distribution functions based on quantiles. Behaviour Research Methods, Instruments & Computers, 35, 485-492.   pdf


Brown, S.D., & Heathcote, A. (2002) On the use of Nonparametric Regression in Assessing Parametric Regression Model. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 46, 716-730.   pdf

Heathcote, A. & Brown, S.D. (2002) SEEXC: A model of response time in skill acquisition. Noetica, Cognitive Science Conference 2002 Papers.   pdf   Available Online

Heathcote, A., Brown, S.D. & Mewhort, D.J.K. (2002) Quantile Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Response Time Distributions. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 9, 394 401.   pdf   Appendix describing bias and power calculations and tabulated simulation results


Heathcote, A., Brown, S.D. (2000) The law of practice and localist neural network models. In Page, M., Connectionist modelling in psychology: A localist Manifesto, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23, 479-480.   pdf

Heathcote, A., Brown, S.D. & Mewhort, D.J.K. (2000) Repealing the power law: The case for an exponential law of practice. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 7, 185-207.   pdf



Brown, S.D. (2002) Quantitative Approaches to Skill Acquisition in Choice Tasks. PhD Thesis, University of Newcastle, Australia.   pdf